The aesthetic value of fine chili, however, is not a debatable thing. It is an actuality. The making and judgment of chili is an old art, and history, in my so-called outmoded view, has proved that social energies cannot invent good chili. It is a matter of the individual cook, a genius whose powers of invention cannot be matched by the gratuitous addition of hoisin sauce or curry powders in the name of misguided multiculturalism. Chili is part of the American Past, and while it is true that chili has served myriad social and political purposes of expansionist powers, its generous championing by certain advantaged parties does not diminish its aesthetical value.